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The color must be compared with a chart to get a number and determine if the liquid is acidic, basic or neutral.For example, if you are testing a citrus juice, the color change would happen around the 1 or 2 p H level (acidic) whereas water would change color around 7 (neutral).
The dyes are extracted from such species as Roccella tinctoria (South America), Roccella fuciformis (Angola and Madagascar), Roccella pygmaea (Algeria), Roccella phycopsis, Lecanora tartarea (Norway, Sweden), Variolaria dealbata, Ochrolechia parella, Parmotrema tinctorum, and Parmelia.
Currently, the main sources are Roccella montagnei (Mozambique) and Dendrographa leucophoea (California).
Under acidic conditions, the solution is red, and under alkaline conditions, the solution is blue.
Wet litmus paper can also be used to test for water-soluble gases that affect acidity or alkalinity; the gas dissolves in the water and the resulting solution colors the litmus paper.
The conjugate base, formed from the litmus acid, has a blue color, so the wet red litmus paper turns blue in alkaline solution.
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litmus paper absorbent paper impregnated with a solution of litmus, dried and cut into strips.
Chemicals and solutions are often classified as being acidic, basic or neutral.
These properties are determined by the p H scale, which ranges from 0 to 14.
It is often adsorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the oldest forms of p H indicator, used to test materials for acidity.
Litmus can be found in different species of lichens.