Before these events, Sikhs in Britain generally supported India and were mainly focused on campaigning for the right to maintain Sikh symbols in Britain.
However, anger about Operation Bluestar remains an issue which continues to move Sikhs in Britain to protest (against India) about this incident.
The report from this project is available to download for free here.
Two events in 1984 fundamentally changed Sikh activism in Britain: The storming of (often referred to as the Golden Temple) during Operation Bluestar in June 1984 and the violence that took place against Sikhs across India in November 1984, following the assassination of the Indian Prime Minister by her Sikh bodyguards.
In November 2015 the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited the UK.
According to Indian media, during this visit he presented a dossier on ‘Sikh radicalisation in Britain’ to his counterpart David Cameron, which included information on Sikh groups in the UK trying to revive the movement for a separate Sikh state (Khalistan), providing training on how to make explosive devices (IEDs) and funding hate-propaganda against India.The Astrobee is an autonomous free-flying robot developed by NASA to assist astronauts on the International Space Station. Project Link Demo The Robot X competition by the AUVSI Foundation is the most complex robotics competition till date.Under the guest scientist program, I develop multi-agent coverage and control algorithms focussed on assisting humans in space. Our team at Michigan is participating this December with the ultimate objective of developing a fully autonomous surface vessel aimed to further the advances in oceanic exploration.As there are few places and spaces within the British education system for Sikhs in Britain to examine their heritage and history, many undertake such engagement and learning on an ad hoc basis, primarily online.I categorise the different types of publicly visible Sikh activism in Britain as focusing on a) social justice and humanitarian relief (e.g., seeking justice for 1984, providing aid/food relief), b) diasporic nationalism around Khalistan, c) ‘enforcing’ Sikh practices so they are carried out according to established codes of conduct and/or decrees, d) ‘defending/policing’ the Sikh community against a variety of perceived ‘external threats’ and e) personal/factional disputes.Having mapped the various events that have taken place in Britain involving Sikhs, I found that the most frequently reported incidents of violence involving Sikhs have occurred against other Sikhs.In the immediate aftermath of 1984 some incidents of fatal political violence were committed in Britain by Sikhs supporting Khalistan, against Sikhs opposing it.The Midlands has the highest concentration of Sikh organisations and which impacts on the number of activities, networks, incidents and opportunities to mobilise in this region.Narratives which lead to activism are transmitted in different ways, through families, organised events, lectures, camps, music and Sikh media (newspaper, broadcast, online and social media).Project Link A robust pedestrian tracking algorithm is implemented in this project based on Mask R-CNN, Optical Flow and Particle Filtering.The system is capable of single hypothesis tracking in difficult lighting conditions.