A variety of methods are also used to measure the degree of spondylolisthesis.
The primary focus of this article is isthmic spondylolisthesis only, because it is the most common variety and because it is relevant to sports medicine.
A discoidectomy by Cloward's procedure was performed in 73 patients and a corpectomy was done in 64 patients.
Of these, 14 patients with the clinical and radiological evidence of C3-4 level CSM were included in the present study.
Examples of such activities include gymnastics, football (lineman), wrestling, weight lifting (particularly standing overhead presses), rowing, pole vaulting, diving, hurdling, swimming (especially the butterfly stroke), baseball (especially pitching), tennis (especially serving), sailing (particularly the hiking maneuver), and volleyball.
Gymnastics and football are generally considered the highest risk sports.Both spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis are often asymptomatic, and the degree of spondylolisthesis does not necessarily correlate with the incidence or severity of symptoms, even when a patient is experiencing back pain.However, these 2 entities have been reported to be the most common underlying causes of persistent low back pain among children and adolescents, despite the fact that most cases are asymptomatic.The clinical status of the patients was assessed by the modified Japanese orthopedic association scale (m JOAS).The mean difference between the static and dynamic canal diameters was statistically significant at C3-4 (p How to cite this URL: Vyas K H, Banerji D, Behari S, Jain S, Jain V K, Chhabra D K. Neurol India [serial online] 2004 [cited 2019 Sep 7];5-9. 2004/52/2/215/11047The commonly involved levels in the order of frequency in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) are C5-6, C6-7, and C4-5.,,,,,, The C3-4 level is infrequently involved in CSM.Spondylolysis, a break in the vertebra typically in the region of the pars interarticularis, may or may not be associated with a spondylolisthesis.If the pars defect is bilateral, it may allow slippage of the vertebra, typically L5 on S1, resulting in spondylolisthesis.Isthmic (spondylolytic) spondylolisthesis usually occurs in children older than 5 years, most commonly in those aged 7-8 years, and it rarely occurs before walking begins.Slip progression is minimal after skeletal maturity.The prevalence rate of isthmic spondylolisthesis is approximately 5% at age 5-7 years, with an increase to 6-7% by age 18 years.This condition is twice as common in males as in females, and the prevalence is lower in blacks (2.8%, black men; 1.1%, black women) than in whites (6.4%, white men; 2.3%, white women).