The waste water generated in these areas normally percolates into the soil or evaporates.Tags: Essay Writing HelperExamples Of Qualitative Research Proposals In EducationPersuasive Essay With Faulty ReasoningProblem Solving With Venn DiagramsQuestions Expect Dissertation DefenseCapstone Project FormatThe Essays Of Michel De Montaigne SummaryHelp Solving Word Problems
The Central Pollution Control Board,a Ministry of Environment & Forests Government of India entity, has established a National Water Quality Monitoring Network comprising 1429 monitoring stations in 28 states and 6 in Union Territories on various rivers and water bodies across the country. The monitoring network covers 293 rivers, 94 lakes, 9 tanks, 41 ponds, 8 creeks, 23 canals, 18 drains and 411 wells distributed across India.
Water samples are routinely analysed for 28 parameters including dissolved oxygen, bacteriological and other internationally established parameters for water quality.
In 2010 the water quality monitoring found almost all rivers with high levels of BOD (a measure of pollution with organic matter).
The worst pollution, in decreasing order, were found in river Markanda (490 mg/l BOD), followed by river Kali (364), river Amlakhadi (353), Yamuna canal (247), river Yamuna at Delhi (70) and river Betwa (58).
Plus the water had high concentration of COD and BOD (chemical and biochemical oxygen demand), ammonia, phosphate, chloride, chromium, arsenic and chlorpyrifos pesticide.
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The ground water also contains nickel and selenium, while the tap water has high concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium.
A 2007 study found that discharge of untreated sewage is the single most important source of pollution of surface and ground water in India.
There is a large gap between generation and treatment of domestic waste water in India.
In rural parts of India, the river BOD levels were sufficient to support aquatic life.
Rivers Yamuna, Ganga, Gomti, Ghaghara River, Chambal, Mahi , Vardha , Godavari , are amongst the other most coliform polluted water bodies in India.