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Calvinism stressed economic success as the hallmark of salvation, and psychology concurred. Eugenics spokesmen urged the elimination of the unfit and inferior and opposed welfare programs, decent wages, and safe working conditions.These views continue to be held today, although sometimes in more subtle forms.
The cultural grid provides a systematic framework for the counselor to interpret each client behavior in the context where that behavior was learned and is displayed.
The cultural grid demonstrates that there are many different culture teachers present in the counseling interview, with some belonging to the counselor and some belonging to the client.
Anthropologists have tended to take a relativistic position when classifying and interpreting behavior across cultures.
Psychologists, in contrast, have linked social characteristics and psychological phenomena with minimal attention to cultural differences.
First, reality is defined according to one set of cultural assumptions.
Second, people become insensitive to cultural variations among individuals and assume that their own view is the only right one.
The encapsulation of counselors is most evident in the way in which counselors are trained and educated.
The training of counselors has been characterized by conventional assumptions that reflect the values and priorities of the Euro-American cultural context.
Fifth, most providers come from a majority culture, whereas most clients are members of minority cultures.
If the standard practices of mental health services are themselves encapsulated, as suggested by the NAMHC report, these cultural biases will certainly influence the practical applications of psychology through counseling and therapy.