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But there is considerably less attention (if any) on how these emphases should confluence each other.
This paper attempts to identify the minimal requirements for formative assessment to succeed in terms of assessment standards, assessment design, and assessment feedback.
Three recurring emphases in the literature on assessment for enhancing learning are (a) clarity in illuminating standards that may articulate the gap between what was achieved and what can be gained, (b) the importance of assessment design in prompting and sustaining students’ desired learning, and (c) giving students feedback that enables them to improve their learning (see Figure 1).
A model for framing assessment design, feedback, and standards is proposed.
It is argued that assessment standards, design, and feedback should be understood as triangulating the proximal space in which assessment activities may enhance students’ learning within a distinct period of time, and that these three elements broadly constitute minimal requirements for Af L to succeed.What Ramaprasad’s  definition and Sadler’s  conditions for feedback have in common is the need for clear standards of learning to be articulated in order to identify a student’s gap in learning that feedback may address.In common discourse, standards are whether a programme of study or examination results show a level of satisfaction/achievement.Likewise, Boud  argues strongly that “unless feedback is applied and used to demonstrate improvement, there is no way to tell if it has been effective” (Page 10).This implies a few things: (a) students were given a task from which useful feedback could be given, (b) there is a subsequent task for which students may apply the feedback to, and (c) The feedback is suitable for assisting students to improve their learning towards a desired (referent) standard.But in terms of functioning as a yardstick for gauging whether learning or enhancement of learning has actually taken place, standards need to be more unambiguously defined before tests and examinations.The only way to tell if learning results from feedback is for students to make some kind of response to complete the feedback loop .Much has been written on how each of these is important in designing and using assessment for learning.In this paper, I argue that assessment design, student feedback practices and clarity of standards are three components of assessment for learning that influence and construct each other.Black and Wiliam’s  comprehensive review of formative assessment research has been relied on by many to argue that formative assessment has significant benefits for enhancing students’ learning.In that study, the authors framed formative assessment (very) broadly to be interpreted as “encompassing all those activities undertaken by teachers, and/or by their students, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged.” (Page 7).