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I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production.
However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power.
I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e.
the attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination.
They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e.
The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is clear that Here I shall make two comments.
The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction.
Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to add – i.e.
a number of techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e.