One of the most influential texts of classical Hindu Yoga is Patañjali's Yoga sutras (c.
400 CE), a text associated with Yoga and Samkhya, which outlines eight limbs leading to kaivalya ("aloneness").
Other criteria deemed important [but not essential] involve a state of psychophysical relaxation, the use of a self-focus skill or anchor, the presence of a state of suspension of logical thought processes, a religious/spiritual/philosophical context, or a state of mental silence.
For instance, while monks meditate as part of their everyday lives, they also engage the codified rules and live together in monasteries in specific cultural settings that go along with their meditative practices.
Meditation has proven difficult to define as it covers a wide range of dissimilar practices in different traditions.
In popular usage, the word "meditation" and the phrase "meditative practice" are often used imprecisely to designate practices found across many cultures.Another important Hindu yoga text is the Yoga Yajnavalkya, which makes use of Hatha Yoga and Vedanta Philosophy.Jain meditation and spiritual practices system were referred to as salvation-path.Dhamma Talk Transcriptions and Essaysby Bhikkhu Sopako Bodhi (Achan Sobin Namto) Wayfaring: A Manual For Insight Meditation The Four Foundations of Mindfulness Happiness is in the Middle The Four Noble Truths Sowing Mindfulness on Khandha Soil The Practice to Apprehend Reality Using Clear Comprehension Coping With Hindrances When Do You See?The Role of the Elements in Vipassana Meditation Beginning to See [PDF] The Lion's Roar: Two Discourses of the Buddha Self-transformation Practical Insight Meditation Practical Vipassana Meditation Exercises Fundamentals of Insight Meditation Disconnect the Dots [View as PDF] Real Buddhism?although other postures such as sitting, supine (lying), and standing are also used.Meditation is also sometimes done while walking, known as kinhin, or while doing a simple task mindfully, known as samu.Depending on the tradition, the liberative event is named moksha, vimukti or kaivalya.The earliest clear references to meditation in Hindu literature are in the middle Upanishads and the Mahabharata (including the Bhagavad Gita).In Advaita Vedanta this is equated with the omnipresent and non-dual Brahman.In the dualistic Yoga school and Samkhya, the Self is called Purusha, a pure consciousness separate from matter.