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Colossus was an early binary electronic digital computer.
Emphasized the importance of training sequences, and the use of parts of previous solutions to problems in constructing trial solutions to new problems.
Description: Decision Trees are a common learning algorithm and a decision representation tool.
It contains the first use of the term artificial intelligence and this succinct description of the philosophical foundation of the field: "every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it." (See philosophy of AI) The proposal invited researchers to the Dartmouth conference, which is widely considered the "birth of AI".
(See history of AI.) Description: The first paper written on machine learning.
Research in this area is remarkable because (1) the algorithms and proofs tend to be very simple and beautiful, and (2) the model makes no statistical assumptions about the data.
In other words, the data need not be random (as in nearly all other learning models), but can be chosen arbitrarily by "nature" or even an adversary.Description: One of the papers that started the field of on-line learning.In this learning setting, a learner receives a sequence of examples, making predictions after each one, and receiving feedback after each prediction.Description: The Cray-1 was a supercomputer designed by a team including Seymour Cray for Cray Research.The first Cray-1 system was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1976, and it went on to become one of the best known and most successful supercomputers in history.Description: The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a mainframe computer system family announced by IBM on April 7, 1964.It was the first family of computers making a clear distinction between architecture and implementation.Description: This paper discusses the concept of RAID disks, outlines the different levels of RAID, and the benefits of each level.It is a good paper for discussing issues of reliability and fault tolerance of computer systems, and the cost of providing such fault-tolerance.Specifically, this paper introduced the winnow algorithm.Description: LR parser, which does bottom up parsing for deterministic context-free languages.