Here it appears that modernism is not only concerned with the place of the artist but also with that of the reader. As such, they invite the plain reader to change his or her critical attitude by encouraging him or her to identify what he or she would “expect of poetry” (10), that is to say, in relation to tradition, or at least, acknowledge the poet’s sincere innovations. The plain reader be damned.” Beckett clearly defends those principles in “Dante… The form that is an arbitrary and independent phenomenon can fulfil no higher function than that of stimulus for a tertiary or quartery conditioned reflex of dribbling comprehension.
Graves and Riding’s effort at soothing the plain reader’s hostility to modernist poetry seems to be compromised when he or she is asked to “admit that what is called our common intelligence is the mind in its least active state: that poetry obviously demands a more vigorous imaginative effort than the plain reader has been willing to apply to it” (10). (26) “Looking on impressionism as one of the earliest manifestations of the general modernist tendency to overcome the distinction between subject-matter and form” (Graves 42).
Finally, and as a result of these two modernist filters, the avant-garde and the hieroglyphic, I will argue that Beckett sketches his own vision of modernism at a time when the occult greatly influenced the modernist writers in their creations, and that he drew on the Italian philosopher and cosmological theoretician Giordano Bruno to forge his own principle of “identified contraries.” the loss of its avant-garde status and its coming into tradition.
The little literary magazines, which had participated in the renewal of avant-garde movements by giving to young writers the opportunity to express themselves through formal innovations and experiments, and in which manifestos had had pride of place, were now declining.
In his essays Beckett negatively performs what he underlines so as to “undermin[e] the foundations upon which anything serious can be written by the critic” (Wood 2). He cannot tell you because he is not God Almighty, but in a thousand years he will tell you, and in the meantime must be content to know why horses have not five legs, nor three.
He is conscious that things with a common numerical characteristic tend towards a very significant interrelationship., it is necessary to distinguish the various meanings of the term, for there are as many meanings of ‘magic’ as there are of ‘magician’.First, the term ‘magician’ means a wise man; for example, the trismegistes among the Egyptians, the druids among the Gauls, the gymnosophists among the Indians, the cabalists among the Hebrews, the magi among the Persians (who were followers of Zoroaster), the sophists among the Greeks and the wise men among the Latins.In 1964, John Fletcher drew attention to the critics’ lack of consideration for Samuel Beckett’s critical writings as singular discursive pieces.Thirty years later, Rupert Wood drew the same conclusion: despite the deconstructive logic of the essays, the critics cannot resist the metatextual status they grant to the author’s philosophical and aesthetic theories.(32) This interconnection between the writer and the reader leads Eliot to acknowledge and undermine a duality between the private world of the self and the public world of the outside. Joyce,” Beckett seemingly mistreats the reader so as to tackle the concept of the “plain reader’s rights.”, in which Robert Graves and Laura Riding dedicate the first chapter to the “plain reader’s rights.” In this chapter, Graves and Riding try to go beyond the cliché of the “high-brow’s game of baiting the low-brow” (10) in modernist poetry, which is, according to them, “merely a joke at the plain reader’s expense” (10).These opposites “are irreconcilable, yet on the other hand neither would exist without the other, and they met into each other by a process which we cannot grasp” (Howarth 64). No modernist poetry is worthwhile, if it disregards the plain reader. Joyce” though, as Laura Salisbury remarks The rapid skimming and absorption of the scant cream of sense is made possible by what I may call a continuous process of copious intellectual salivation.Beckett puise ainsi dans les écrits du philosophe italien Giordano Bruno pour forger, selon nous, son propre principe littéraire, “l’identité des contraires,” proposant une formule sans toutefois imposer un programme.C’est ce qui propulse Beckett au cœur de trois crédos modernistes : le “modernisme historique,” le “modernisme hiéroglyphique” et le “modernisme alchimique.” Cet article propose de les explorer au prisme de l’essai critique de Beckett.Second, ‘magician’ refers to someone who does wondrous things merely by manipulating active and passive powers, as occurs in chemistry, medicine and such fields; this is commonly called ‘natural magic’.Third, magic involves circumstances such that the actions of nature or of a higher intelligence occur in such a way as to excite wonderment by their appearances; this type of magic is called ‘prestidigitation’.