The debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki concerns the ethical, legal, and military controversies surrounding the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 August and 9 August 1945 at the close of World War II (1939–45).The Soviet Union declared war on Japan an hour before 9 August and invaded Manchuria at one minute past midnight; Japan surrendered on 15 August. Truman, United Kingdom Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Chairman of the Chinese Nationalist Government Chiang Kai-shek issued the Potsdam Declaration, which outlined the terms of surrender for the Empire of Japan as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference.Tags: Critical Thinking HomeschoolSample Research Paper Thesis StatementRacism In Advertising EssayDaughters Of The American Revolution Essay 2009The Hiking Trip Short Story EssayDissertation AwardAnimal Farm Research Paper Topics
Only 216 Japanese POWs were held at the hand of the Americans during the battle.
According to the official Navy Department Library website, "The 36-day (Iwo Jima) assault resulted in more than 26,000 American casualties, including 6,800 dead" with 19,217 wounded. military had nearly 500,000 Purple Heart medals manufactured in anticipation of potential casualties from the planned invasion of Japan.
Over the course of time, different arguments have gained and lost support as new evidence has become available and as new studies have been completed.
A primary and continuing focus has been on the role of the bombings in Japan's surrender and the U.
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Articles are published under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commerical-No Derivs (CC BY-NC-ND) unless otherwise stated in the article.Meanwhile, fighting continued in the Philippines, New Guinea and Borneo, and offensives were scheduled for September in southern China and Malaya.The Soviet invasion of Manchuria had, in the week before the surrender, caused over 80,000 deaths.Because the United States Army Air Forces wanted to use its fission bombs on previously undamaged cities in order to have accurate data on nuclear-caused damage, Kokura, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and Niigata were preserved from conventional bombing raids. Intensive conventional bombing would have continued or increased prior to an invasion.The submarine blockade and the United States Army Air Forces's mining operation, Operation Starvation, had effectively cut off Japan's imports.Those who oppose the bombings argue it was militarily unnecessary, There are voices which assert that the bomb should never have been used at all. Those who argue in favor of the decision to drop the atomic bombs on enemy targets believe massive casualties on both sides would have occurred in Operation Downfall, the planned Allied invasion of Japan. The "as much as a million" phrase was added to the final draft by Truman's staff, so as not to appear to contradict an earlier statement given in a published article by Stimson (former Secretary of War). Delivered on June 15, 1945, after insight gained from the Battle of Okinawa, the study noted Japan's inadequate defenses resulting from a very effective sea blockade and the Allied firebombing campaign. Marshall and Douglas Mac Arthur signed documents agreeing with the Joint War Plans Committee estimate.In a study done by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in April 1945, the figures of 7.45 casualties per 1,000 man-days and 1.78 fatalities per 1,000 man-days were developed. which provided planning information to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, estimated an invasion of Japan would result in 40,000 U. In addition, a large number of Japanese combatant and non-combatant casualties were expected as a result of such actions.S.'s justification for them based upon the premise that the bombings precipitated the surrender.This remains the subject of both scholarly and popular debate. casualties could range from 250,000 to one million combatants.The Operation Meetinghouse firebombing raid on Tokyo alone killed 100,000 civilians on the night of March 9–10, 1945, causing more civilian death and destruction than the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.A total of 350,000 civilians died in the incendiary raids on 67 Japanese cities.