‘Even on the highest throne in the world, we are seated still upon our arses.'” 2.Lucius Annaeus Seneca “Seneca belonged to the Stoic school of philosophy, which is all about teaching you how to respond calmly to disaster. Arthur Schopenhauer “Schopenhauer is another great pessimist who makes you feel happier.Often considered to be a thoroughgoing pessimist, Schopenhauer in fact advocated ways — via artistic, moral and ascetic forms of awareness — to overcome a frustration-filled and fundamentally painful human condition.
In Göttingen, he absorbed the views of the skeptical philosopher, Gottlob Ernst Schulze (1761–1833), who introduced him to Plato and Kant. After a year’s vacation in Italy and with in hand, Schopenhauer applied for the opportunity to lecture at the University of Berlin, the institution at which he had formerly studied, and where two years earlier (1818), Hegel had arrived to assume Fichte’s prestigious philosophical chair.
Schopenhauer next enrolled at the University of Berlin (1811–13), where his lecturers included Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762–1814) and Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834). His experiences in Berlin were less than professionally fruitful, however, for in March of 1820, Schopenhauer self-assuredly scheduled his class at a time that was simultaneous with Hegel’s popular lectures, and few students chose to hear Schopenhauer.
He also writes in a personal and often very frank way designed to shock the prudish.
‘Kings and philosophers shit, and so do ladies,’ he says.
A second attempt to lecture at the University of Berlin was unsuccessful, and this disappointment was complicated by the loss of a lawsuit that had begun several years earlier in August, 1821.
The dispute issued from an angry shoving-match between Schopenhauer and Caroline Luise Marguet (d.A future in the international business trade was envisioned from the day Arthur was born, as reflected in how Schopenhauer’s father carefully chose his son’s first name on account of its identical spelling in German, French and English.In March 1793, when Schopenhauer was five years old, his family moved to the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg after the formerly free city of Danzig was annexed by Prussia.We are absurdly anxious about success, says popular philosopher Alain de Botton (TED Talk: Alain de Botton: A kinder, gentler philosophy of success).In his talk from 2009, he suggests that many of our modern values — like our sense of limitless possibility and upward growth — can actually lead us to stress harder about how well we’re doing. For TED, he’s put together this reading list of (mainly) pessimistic philosophers who have inspired his thinking about positivity. Michel de Montaigne “Montaigne likes to point out that philosophers don’t know everything, and that they would be a lot wiser if they laughed at themselves a little more.People took him to mean sensual pleasure, and the word ‘epicurean’ has been linked to gluttony ever since.But read the real Epicurus and you’ll see that his idea of pleasure was quite immaterial; in fact, it was all about having a group of good friends and reading books together outdoors.” 6.Friedrich Nietzsche “A much-misunderstood philosopher, seen as barking mad but actually very wise and sane.He tells us nice things about the need for struggle in life.century philosophers to contend that at its core, the universe is not a rational place.Inspired by Plato and Kant, both of whom regarded the world as being more amenable to reason, Schopenhauer developed their philosophies into an instinct-recognizing and ultimately ascetic outlook, emphasizing that in the face of a world filled with endless strife, we ought to minimize our natural desires for the sake of achieving a more tranquil frame of mind and a disposition towards universal beneficence.